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Map Datums and Location Formats
Map Datums are based on a mathematical model of the Earth.
What are Map Datums?
A datum is a mathematical model of the Earth that approximates
the shape of the Earth and enables calculations to be carried out in a
consistent and accurate manner. The datum is physically represented
by a framework of ground monuments (such as trig. stations) whose
locations have been accurately measured and calculated on this
reference surface. Lines of latitude and longitude on a map or chart
are referenced to a speciﬁc map datum. Every chart has a map datum
reference and the GPSMAP 196 can be set to match most of those
If you are navigating and comparing the GPS coordinates to a map,
chart, or other reference, the map datum in the GPS unit should
be set to the same datum as the map to ensure the most accurate
What is a Location Format?
Your current location can be viewed on the GPS in the form of
coordinates. Since different maps and charts use different location
formats, Garmin GPS units allow you to choose the correct
coordinate system for the type of map you are using. The most
common format is latitude and longitude, which is used by all
Garmin units. You can change the location format to use with other
coordinate systems in Location Preferences. UTM/UPS (Universal
Transverse Mercator/Universal Polar Stereographic) are easy-to-use
metric grids that are found on most USGS topographic quadrangle
maps. Several other grids, including a user-deﬁnable grid (for the
advanced user), are available.
For more information about using paper maps with your Garmin
unit, refer to Using a Garmin GPS with Paper Land Maps, available
for download at http://www.garmin.com/manuals/UsingaGarminGP
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APPENDIX > MAP DATUMS AND LOCATION FORMATS
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Jeppesen Database Information
The GPSMAP 196 includes an internal Jeppesen® database that
provides location and facility information for thousands of airports,
VORs, NDBs, and more. Updates to the Jeppesen database are
available every 28 days online (www.garmin.com). The update
program is designed to operate on Windows®-compatible PCs and
requires the included PC Interface Cable to connect your GPSMAP
196 to the PC’s serial communications port. The following
information is provided from the internal Jeppesen database:
Airport—* identiﬁer, facility name, city/state/country, latitude/
longitude, ﬁeld elevation, available fuel types, runway designations
and layout, runway surface, runway length, runway width, runway
lighting, communication frequencies, and published approaches.
Weather—frequencies associated with an airport (ASOS, ATIS, and
VORs—* identiﬁer, facility name, city/state/country, location
(latitude/longitude), frequency, service volume (high, low, terminal),
and type (such as VOR-DME, TACAN, and VORTAC).
NDBs—* identiﬁer, facility name, city/state/country, location
(latitude/longitude), and frequency.
Intersections—identiﬁer, nearest VOR, radial and distance from
nearest VOR, location (latitude/longitude), and region/country.
ARTCC—Air Route Trafﬁc Control Centers.
Airspace—boundaries (Class B, Class C, Control Zones, SUAs, and
MOAs), controlling agency, and vertical boundaries.
FSS—Flight Service Stations.
* Symbology used for NDBs, VORs, and airports is consistent with
those used on a sectional chart.
Updates to the Jeppesen database are available every 28 days online
(http://shop.garmin.com/aviation/databases/). The update programs
are designed to operate on Windows®-compatible PCs and requires
the included PC Interface Cable to be connected to the unit and an
available serial port on your computer.
NOTE: After you perform an update to your Jeppesen database,
verify that all of your ﬂight plans (routes) in your unit are
current. If there is an obsolete Jeppesen aviation point in a saved
route, the route is locked and unusable. You need to create a new
route with current Jeppesen database points.
An optional FlightBook software package is available to assist with
your ﬂight record keeping. Visit the Garmin Web site at
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APPENDIX > JEPPESEN DATABASE INFORMATION
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Accuracy Alarm—the GPS accuracy has fallen outside of user-set value.
Alarm Clock—the alarm clock has sounded.
Antenna Shorted to Ground
—the external GPS antenna has an electrical
connection problem. Contact Garmin Product Support.
Approaching Target Altitude—within 1,000 feet of ﬁnal VNAV target
—you are nearing a turn in a route.
Approaching VNAV Proﬁle—you are within one minute of reaching the initial
VNAV decent point.
Arriving at Destination—you are nearing your destination.
Batteries Low—the batteries needs to be replaced.
Basemap Failed Unit Needs Repair—there is an internal problem with your
unit. Contact Garmin Product Support to have the unit serviced.
Can’t Unlock Maps—no applicable unlock code for one or more maps was
found. All MapSource maps are not accessible.
—internal problem with the unit. Contact your dealer or
Garmin Product Support to have the unit repaired.
Detail Maps Don’t Support Routing—maps that are loaded on the data card
do not support automatic route calculation.
Dragging Anchor—the distance set in the Anchor Drag Alarm is exceeded.
Lost Satellite Reception—the unit is unable to receive satellite signals.
Memory Full—unit memory is full, no further data can be saved.
Memory (RAM) Failed Unit Needs Repair—there is an internal problem
with your unit. Contact Garmin Product Support to have the unit serviced.
Memory (ROM) Failed Unit Needs Repair—there is an internal problem
with your unit. Contact Garmin Product Support to have the unit serviced.
Near Proximity Point
—you have reached the distance set for a proximity
No Diff GPS Location—RTCM is selected, but the unit is not receiving DGPS
No Roads Near Destination
—the destination for the road route you tried to
calculate is not near any roads. Select a different destination.
No Roads Near Starting Point
—the start location for the road route you tried
to calculate is not near any roads. Select a different start location.
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APPENDIX > MESSAGES
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No DGPS Position—no differential connection data is available, or not enough
data is available to calculate a DGPS position.
No Tide Stations for that Area
—no tide stations within 100 miles of the area.
None Found—no data matched the search criteria.
Off Course—you are off course by the distance set in the Off Course Alarm.
Proximity Memory Full
—no additional proximity waypoints can be saved.
Proximity Radius Overlaps
—the radius of two proximity waypoints overlap.
Route Already Exists
—you have entered a route name that already exists.
Route Calculation Error
—no route can be calculated.
Route Memory Full—no additional routes can be saved.
—uploaded route from another device has more than 50
Route Waypoint Memory Full
—no additional route waypoints can be saved.
—approaching a turn that requires a bank angle in excess of 25
degrees to stay on course.
Sunrise, Switching to Day Mode—the unit is switching to Day Mode.
Sunset, Switching to Night Mode—the unit is switching to Night Mode
Track Already Exists
—a saved track with the same name already exists.
Track Log Full —the track log is full and track recording was turned off.
To record more track points, you need to clear the track log and turn track
Track Memory Full
—no more track data can be stored. Delete the old track
data to store the new data.
Track Truncated—a complete uploaded track will not ﬁt in memory. The
oldest track log points have been deleted.
User Timer Expired—the Timer Alarm value has counted down to zero.
VNAV Cancelled—VNAV function cancelled due to a change in the active
Waypoint Already Exists
—a waypoint with the same name already exists.
Waypoint Memory Full
—the unit has stored the maximum number of
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APPENDIX > MESSAGES
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Data Field Options
The following list provides a brief description of each data ﬁeld
option. Some of these options are supported only by devices
interfaced to your GPSMAP 196.
Accuracy—the current accuracy of your GPS determined location.
Altitude—the height above mean sea level (MSL).
Battery Timer—the time remaining on the battery before it is fully discharged.
Bearing—the compass direction from your current location to a destination.
Course—the your path of travel from your starting location to a destination.
Course to Steer—the recommended direction to steer in order to reduce cross-
track error and return to the course line. Showed as Steer.
Cross Track—the distance you are off your course in either direction, left or
—see Waypoint (Destination).
Distance (Destination)—the entire distance, from beginning to end, of a route.
Distance (Next)—the distance to the next point on a route.
ETA (Destination)—Estimated Time of Arrival. The estimated time you will
reach your destination. ETA (Next)—Estimated Time of Arrival. The estimated time you will reach the
next point on your route.
ETE (Destination)—Estimated Time Enroute. The estimated time required to
reach your destination.
ETE (Next)—Estimated Time Enroute. The estimated time required to reach
the next point on your route.
Location (Lat/Lon)—your current location as latitude/longitude coordinates.
Location (Selected)—your current location described in the selected units of
measure (other than lat/lon).
Max Speed—the maximum speed the unit has moved since last reset.
Mov Avg Spd
—see Trip Avg. Speed (Moving).
—see Trip Timer (Moving).
—see Waypoint (Next).
Odometer—the total distance traveled since the Odometer was reset.
Pointer—the arrow indicating the direction to travel to the next point on a
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APPENDIX > DATA FIELD OPTIONS